Saturday, August 27, 2011

The Image of Youth: Japan’s Age Old Obsession

The Image of Youth: Japan’s Age Old Obsession

[Disclaimer: I am currently researching this issue to better understand a common tendency I have noticed while living in Japan for older men to have a strange sexual fascination, if not borderline obsession, with adolescent pop idols and young girls in general.]


Are Girl Bands and Gravure Idols an Extension of Pedophila?
In Japan, music groups like AKB48 are hugely popular. These girl bands often contain anywhere from three to two dozen members, all of them teenage girls, usually around fourteen to fifteen years old. In the case of AKB48 there are a total of 60 members (AKB48 currently holds the Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest pop group).[i][ii] This makes girl groups like AKB48, or Idoling, Girls Generation, Kara, etc. extremely popular with the younger crowds (especially my junior high school students). But here in Japan, such groups usually have a large following of older males as well. The men are typically in their mid thirties and early forties. In fact, AKB48 has done several concerts catering entirely to this unique demographic. It is a strange thing to turn on the television and see an entire crowd of middle-aged men holding up their cell phones and taking pictures of underage girls wearing short mini-skirts. However, such a practice is common place in Japan. The gravure idol industry specializes and excels at exploiting the sexual attractiveness of these young women and many more like them.[iii]

You will often hear stories of teachers marrying students in Japan. For a long time I thought this was just a theme found in Japanese animation, called anime, but having spent half a decade in Japan I have heard of two such cases. When I first came to Japan, the first school I worked at was going through a difficult time, as the school counselor (a man) had just been fired for getting caught taking pictures up the skirts of junior high school girls with a secret camera in his shoe. A year later an elementary school teacher I worked with had to be shamed when her husband, who worked in the school district over, was caught with child pornography in his school work locker.

Having spent so much time in Japan, I have formulated various reasons which help explain such tendencies for men to prefer younger women. Japanese culture is just generally obsessed with youth. The entertainment industry is obsessed with the image of youth. Needless to say, the two obsessions feed each other. In fact, the obsession seems to be so ingrained into the society as a whole that hiring practices for jobs often reflect a tendency to hire young beautiful Japanese girls over higher educated men and women.[iv]

Even so, the Japanese obsession with adolescent youth is so prevalent, that you can’t help but notice it. In fact, it is nowhere more prevalent than in the manga industry (i.e., Japanese comic books). Manga aimed at adult audiences frequently depicts extreme hardcore sex with girls which are drawn to look adolescent, or often times, are adolescents in the stories. In fact, the depiction of young girls in sexual graphic manga was so prevalent that Tokyo Gov Shintaro Ishihara passed Bill 156 which seeks to regulate manga that “unreasonably praises or exaggerates” the extreme sexual depictions of minors.[v]


Even so, the idol industry and publishing industry are only banking on that which is profitable to market—sex—or the idea of sex anyway. A friend of mine at university was obsessed with finding out why Japans idol fascination was so strong, his conclusion made sense. After several years of research, he concluded that modern day idols are filling an entertainment void left open after the decline of working Geisha. Many geisha begin their apprenticeship as underage girls, called hangyoku and many of these girls would start as young as nine years old, before child labor laws were passed prohibiting the work of minors. In her final stage of geisha training a young girl becomes a maiko, and works as an apprentice until she acquires all the skills of a professional geisha.

In Japan, the biggest industry has always been entertainment. According to Wikipedia:

“The biggest industry in Japan is not shipbuilding, producing cultured pearls, or manufacturing transistor radios or cameras. It is entertainment.”[38] The term geisha literally translates to mean “entertainer.” Some prostitutes refer to themselves as “geisha,” but they are not. A geisha's sex and love life is usually distinct from her professional life. A successful geisha can entrance her male customers with music, dance, and conversation. “Geishas are not submissive and subservient, but in fact they are some of the most financially and emotionally successful and strongest women in Japan, and traditionally have been so.”[26]

My friend’s theory was that with the decline of young female entertainers during the war era and Japan’s reconstruction, the need for such entertainment returned with a boom during the baby boom era, of young Japanese professionals more hungry for entertainment than ever. Thus Japanese idol culture was born.

Now that is the simple version of what I think is a much more complicated cultural phenomenon, but what is interesting to me is the continued obsession with youth. The question I would want to ask is, is it merely cultural? Or is something else at play? Why is it considered alright to idolize scantily clad teenage adolescents beyond just their entertainment value? In other words, I am interested in whether or not girl bands and gravure idols (and perhaps AV idols as well) are merely cultural, or perhaps, can be explained as an extension of paraphilia, such as pedophilia and the sexual preference for adolescent girls.

It would make sense to me, that in a non-Christian influenced country, such as Japan, that pedophilia would not be so well hidden from sight. Maybe what we are seeing is the general tendency for a natural occurring pedophilia in Japanese culture, where it is considered normal to have such preferences. Maybe such transparency in a culture is healthier than trying to cover it up, as which seems to be the case within many religious organizations. All these are questions which, I feel, deserve further investigation and consideration.

Yet as I thought about it, I realized I really didn’t know or understand what pedophilia is, other than the pejorative term for a child rapist. As such, I couldn’t really say whether or not what I see going on in Japan is related to pedophilia or is something else entirely. So I decided to investigate.


What is Pedophilia?
Even as the notion of pedophilia is controversial in most every civilized society, we cannot just write it off as a mental illness. It seems to me that pedophilia may prove to be more than just sick perverts getting off to images of child porn and molesting small children.

Don’t misunderstand me, I still believe pedophilia is morally reprehensible when acted upon. In fact, I agree with pedophilia being classified as a mental disorder for those who follow up on the urges. According to the International Classification of Disease, pedophilia is a “disorder of adult personality and behavior” in which there is a sexual preference for prepubescent children, or of pubertal aged children.[vi] The problem is, however, it might not actually be a mental disorder, which would cause us to seriously rethink how we classify and address pedophilia in modern society.

Likewise, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifies pedophilia as a paraphilia in which a person has intense and recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about prepubescent children and on which feelings they have either acted on or which cause distress or interpersonal difficulty.[vii]

Paraphilia simply means unusual sexual interests. American Journal of Psychiatry describes paraphilia as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors" generally involving:

  1. Non-human objects
  2. The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner
  3. Children
  4. Non-consenting persons

Homosexuality was included on the list until 1973.

Needless to say the view of paraphilias as disorders is not universal. For example, while pedophilia is considered a mental disorder, the closely related hebephilia (sexual preference for adolescents typically 11-14 years of age) and ephebophilia (sexual preference for later adolescents typically 15-19 years of age) are not. Obviously, with the latter one, ephebophilia, in many countries and cultures where girls are considered legal consenting adults from 16 to 19 years of age there is no ethical dilemma. Of course the exact age varies from culture to culture, and the dilemma only arises depending on what age we designate as a legal consenting adult, but it is important to realize that in most cases the defining line is drawn at puberty.

Some professionals, such as Charles Allen Moser, have suggested that paraphilia should be eliminated from diagnostic manuals as strange sexual preferences are not always bad or illegal. Nonetheless, the psychiatrist Glen Gabbard has noted that “the term paraphilia remains a pejorative in most circumstances.”[viii]

This is certainly true when we equate pedophiles with corrupt, insane, child rapists. Yet medical professionals still seek to understand the reasons for strange sexual urges. Many assume that pedophilia may have a genetic basis, as does homosexuality, which causes a person to automatically have a sexual preference for adolescent age groups. Although any direct biological associations are still being investigated. However, according to a recent study (2008) it seems that with pedophilia, and other paraphilias, the study suggests these may be “a dysfunction at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing.”[ix]

What this means is pedophilia may not be a psychological disorder but a brain disorder.

Additionally, if this proves to be true, then pedophiles are the victims of a life crippling disability. However, more research needs to be done before we start defending pedophiles, but if it turns out there is a genetic and biological relationship to the cause of such paraphilias, then pedophilia would no longer be classified as a mental disease or psychiatric disorder but would be something similar to sexual orientation, in this case, sexual preference for adolescents.

I suppose we must be careful not to equate homosexuality, which is a sexual orientation, with sexual preference, as the two are not entirely mutual. If pedophilia turns out to have a genetic or biological cause, then it would be just as valid, if not more accurate, to equate pedophilia with genetic obesity. Homosexuality in itself, is not unhealthy or dangerous. Obesity, on the other hand, is extremely dangerous for an individual’s health. If pedophilia has a biological explanation, then I would see it equating more along the lines of something like genetic obesity, something which is adversely affecting the individual, and which may have social and cultural implications.

However, pedophilia, unlike obesity, becomes a legal issue because there is the concern of protecting the well-being and rights of adolescent children. As most pedophiles prey on children, who are not mentally mature enough to deal with complex social relationships let alone sex, it becomes and imperative to protect the children from the acts of pedophile predators.

Needless to say, I think we must continue investigating the cause for pedophilia and the sexual preference for prepubescent teens. The sooner we can understand it, the sooner we can take action in learning how to deal with it, and hopefully learn to better safeguard our children—regardless of which country or culture we live.


Conclusion
Pedophilia proves to be more complicated an issue than I initially thought. This makes pronouncing any set conclusion rather difficult. All I can give you is my opinion on what I think may be happening, based on personal experience and research, but I can’t say whether or not an obsession with girl bands, gravure idols, and the image of youth in general is related to pedophilia or not. Much more research needs to be done first.

In the end, however, I suppose it comes down to figuring out whether or not the cultural tendencies for our sexual preference denote a biological predisposition or a cultural one, or perhaps a little of both, and then determining where we draw the line. For example, with regard to Japanese girl bands and gravure idols, we might ask, although it is illegal to have sex with those who are still minors (under 16 years of age in Japan), does this make the sexual desire to want to have sex with them abnormal, or would this merely reflect a naturally occurring sexual preference? We might ask whether or not there are cultural biases and other external factors we haven’t accounted for, such as stigma against such behavior or the sponsoring of it. When I see a girl band consisting mostly of adolescent girls, dressed down into nothing but their underwear and posing provocatively, is this ad supposed to elicit a sexual response? Am I supposed to be attracted to these teenagers? Or is the media’s sexploitation so out of control that it is sending the wrong messages? Additionally, we must consider whether or not is it designed to exploit an inherent sexual preference in us for prepubescent teen girls, and if so, what are the moral implications of such advertising? All these questions (and more) need to be addressed, but I am afraid further research must be done first. As it is, I wouldn’t rule out Japan’s obsession with girl bands, gravure idols, and the like as an extension of pedophilia. It seems a real possibility, but I don’t want to jump to any conclusions.




[i]  "Guinness Worlds Records - Largest pop group". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2011-6-29.
[ii] "AKB48 is officially the world's biggest group". 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
[iii] Just check out this website Idolex, an online gravure idol index, to see what I mean about the sexploitation of young women so prevalent in the entertainment industry. (Warning: some nude and semi-nude images—viewer disgression is adviced). http://www.idolex.com/
[iv] “Are People hired based on their looks?”Available online: http://injapan.gaijinpot.com/2011/06/17/are-people-hired-based-on-their-looks/
[v] “Ishihara ordinance adamant on Manga Censorship.” Available online: http://injapan.gaijinpot.com/2011/06/21/ishihara-adamant-on-manga-censorship-ordinance/
[vi] World Health Organization,International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: ICD-10 Section F65.4: Paedophilia (online access via ICD-10 site map table of contents)
[vii] Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders DSM-IV TR (Text revision) . Arlington, VA, USA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. .. 2000-06. p. 943. doi :10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349 . ISBN 978-0890420249 .
[viii] Gabbard GO (2007). Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Press. ISBN 9781585622160
[ix] Schiffer B, Paul T, Gizewski E, et al. (May 2008). "Functional brain correlates of heterosexual paedophilia". Neuroimage 41(1): 80–91.doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02.008.PMID 18358744

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Sayonara Sera!


July 31st was officially my last day working and living in Sera, Hiroshima, Japan. After five years teaching in Sera Town with the Sera Town Board of Education at three junior high schools and ten elementary schools, including a city sponsored adult language class every Tuesday night, I made many good friends. Among my closest friends were some of my ex-students, who I continued to stay in contact with after they had graduated JHS.

Imagine my surprise, when on the very last day, I was taking a load of trash out to the garbage bin area when two of my favorite past students, now finishing their second year of high school, came strolling up to me at 7:30 am in the morning. They quickly informed me that another one of my favorite past students would be joining them shortly.

A few minutes later the final girl showed up, and I gave them all some tea. They chatted with me for almost two full hours, and let me know how much they appreciated me as their Sensei. They informed me that I was the best English teacher they ever had, and that by helping them with speech contests, eiken tests, and club activities over the years, that they felt close to me, as if I was their big brother.

I felt extremely overjoyed by their surprise visit, and tears were welling up in all of our eyes as they left on the long walk to high school. From my old apartment it takes about 45 minutes by foot to get to the high school.


I will miss each and every one of my students dearly, but these three (including a fourth who was unable to make it) I will miss most of all. I watched them grow from elementary students to young ladies, and it was an honor and a pleasure getting to know them.


Another set of lovely and wonderful ladies we will dearly miss are the mothers of Sayaka and Solara's Mama-Tomo group. Mama-Tomo is short for Mama Tomodachi group. They were not only extremely supportive, and caring, but since all of their children were roughly Solara's age, she had many good play friends.

Often times the Mama-Tomo group met up on weekends and we would have fun adventures going fruit picking, including strawberries, plums, and nashi (Japanese pears). They all partook in the local events, and we all went to see the famous children's show Inai-Inai-Ba! live when it came through town and the beloved character Wan-Wan the green dancing dog!  Wan-Wan jumped off the stage, ran up to me, the one foreigner in the front row, and shook my hand and said to me, "Taihen desu ne, Pappa!"

On our last official day in Sera, the Mama-Tomo group showed up, unexpectedly, and took Solara with them and babysat her for the full day allowing Sayaka, myself, and our dear friend Tani-san to have time to thoroughly clean the apartment. Nagamori-san even came down from upstairs to help us, even though she had just had her second baby a couple months earlier, she was working just as hard as any of us. I can't even begin to express my gratitude for all the help we received.

We'll never forget any of you!


Over the years living in Japan, I became close friends with the local high school ALT, Arend Sijnja (aka the Sardine Ninja). Of all the foreigners on JET Programme,  he was the only one I related to on a person to person level. I'm sure there are other fine JETs on the programme that I would have liked to get to know better than I just didn't have time to (Dan, Ryan, and Luc come to mind), but Arend and I hit it off. Not right away of course. I don't think we even talked the full first year in Sera, but gradually, via bus rides and hanging out in Hiroshima City during orientations and mid-year conferences, we got to know each other. Our friendship blossomed, and we began hanging out in Sera more often, spending time watching movies, talking about Japanese culture, and sharing our experiences, feelings, and hopes and dreams with each other. More than this, however, we could be ourselves. We didn't need to "act Japanese" but we could just be who we are--and that was liberating--just to have someone who you could open up to and share with, who would understand you, and give you feedback.

Arend is definitely one of the closest friends I have, and I will make a valiant effort to keep in touch with him, as he has returned to New Zealand.


Many of my funnest memories are with the adult students from my Eikawa (English conversation) class. Kumiko Inuoe (top left) was like a host mother to me, and threw some amazing Christmas and Halloween parties. Fujimoto-san helped me a lot before I left Sera, as did Ishibashi-san and others at the Board of Education. They're care and guidance will be missed. None will be missed more than Yasuo Izzuka, my first supervisors, and one of the nicest, dedicated, and most hard working man I have ever met. Izzuka helped me with everything from setting up bank accounts, to getting Internet installed, to helping me buy my first car in Japan. His hard work and dedication are only matched by the bigness of his heart.

Oda-san, a salesman at Honda who, along with Izzuka, helped me get my car, will be missed as well. He was like my host father, so to speak, and always made us welcome in his home. We spent many a fun barbeque over at his place shooting the breeze and relaxing. Likewise, Mr. Utsumi, the bona fide master chef at Kaizumi, will be missed. Every dish he makes, every morsel of food he touches with his magic hands, turns out heavenly. His hospitality and his going out of the way to make us the best atmosphere in any restaurant ever--made us enjoy eating at Kaizumi more than any other restaurant in Japan. Not only that, but his food is unbelievably good--I'm talking $150 plate delectable. The only reason we could even afford to eat his cooking, is because of his passion for it, and his desire to share how amazing food can truly be with everyone--no matter their budget.


Although I will miss teaching at my schools, and miss the teachers and students alike, I will especially miss the students and faculty of Sera Nishi Junior High School. Due to the schools small size, everyone you see in the above picture is it, we became close knit--and students and teachers no longer seems like pupils and co-workers, but rather, sons, daughters, brothers, and sisters.

After an amazing send off, I kept my nerve the whole day, accepting gifts along with intimate hugs and goodbyes. One of my English teachers broke down in tears, saying she'd miss me horribly, and I didn't even know I had made that big of an impact. I stayed cheerful, even as there were so many eyes brimming with tears, but I kept it together--that is until I packed up the final box of my things into the car and started driving away. Sobs and tears unexpectedly broke out, as I broke down in the car. Five years is a long time, especially when you feel so close to such a tight community of parents, teachers, and their children--it felt like I was being torn away from my family.


I will hold dear the memories of the people I met at Sera Nishi, the times we shared running marathons in the blizzard in the middle of winter, whether it was arm wrestling in class, or answering the often personal questions by my curious students, or just handing out with the students on a hot summer day--lounging around on the high jump pads, and watching Japanese anime on my laptop with the students. Everyone at Sera Nishi Junior High School impacted my life, and I hope, that maybe, I impacted theirs too.


So with fond memories, and a heavy heart, know that I love you all--and will miss you more than mere words can reflect.

Sayonara Sera!

Beautiful Solara (My Precious Daughter)







Solara is 1 year 8 months old in these photos. These were taken on my digital camera, a Canon Power Shot IXY 55. I increased the contrast and adjusted for brightness, and made black and white copies, but other than that, these photos are relatively untouched.

My daughter is so gorgeous, breathtaking even, and she gets comments as such wherever she goes. Just to think, she's not even two years old yet and she's turning heads. So precious!